As well as providing consultancy services to the private and public sectors, the Wild Business team continue to carry out novel academic research in the areas of: biodiversity conservation, natural resource management, ecosystem services, reintroductions and rewilding.
Research is undertaken via two mechanisms:
(i) Commissioned research
For those companies at the very leading edge of biodiversity and ecosystem service management, there is often a need to commission primary research to solve sustainability challenges that no-one else has yet faced. We can provide the capacity to undertake such research, to simultaneously solve challenges for clients and advance the state-of-the-art.
(ii) Collaborative research
We partner with research-focused institutions to undertaken practical but novel research into our areas of expertise.
Recent publications by team members
[Note that the following are relevant publications that involved members of the WB team, but were not necessarily undertaken through Wild Business Ltd itself]
Bull, J.W., Baker, J., Griffiths, V.F., Jones, J.P.G., Milner-Gulland, E.J. (2019) Ensuring No Net Loss for people as well as biodiversity: good practice principles [available here].
Griffiths, V.F., Bull, J.W., Baker, J., Milner‐Gulland, E.J. (2019) No net loss for people and biodiversity. Conservation Biology 33 (1), 76-87.
Bull, J.W., Ejrnæs, R., Macdonald, D.W., Svenning, J.C., Sandom, C.J. (2019) Fences can support restoration in human‐dominated ecosystems when rewilding with large predators. Restoration Ecology 27 (1), 198-209.
Bull, J.W., Strange, N. (2018) The global extent of biodiversity offset implementation under no net loss policies. Nature Sustainability, 1(12) 790.
Addison, P., Bull, J.W., Milner-Gulland, E.J. (2018) Using conservation science to advance corporate biodiversity accountability. Conservation Biology.
Addison, P., Bull, J.W. (2018) Conservation accord: Corporate incentives. Science.
Arlidge, W., Bull, J.W., et al. (2017) A global mitigation hierarchy for nature conservation. BioScience, 68 (5), 336-347.
Esmail, N. (2017) “Stakeholder and Institutional Analysis: Achieving No Net Loss for communities and biodiversity in Uganda”. Wild Business Ltd for University of Oxford; London, UK [available here].
Bull, J.W., Lloyd, S.P. & Strange, N. (2016) “Implementation gap between the theory and practice of biodiversity offset multipliers”. Conservation Letters. DOI: 10.1111/conl.12335.
Bull, J.W. & Maron, M. (2016) “How humans drive speciation as well as extinction”. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, DOI:10.1098/rspb.2016.0600.
Sandom, C.J., Clouttick, D., Manwill, M., Bull, J.W. (2016) “Rewilding Knowledge Hub: Bibliography – Version 1.0″. Produced by Wild Business Ltd for Rewilding Britain. Wild Business Ltd; London, UK.
Bull, J.W., & Sandom, C.J. (2016) “The Trans Mountain Legacy Fund: a Programme Evaluation”. Wild Business Ltd; London, UK.
Bull, J.W., et al. (2016) “Seeking convergence on the key concepts in ‘no net loss’ policy”. Journal of Applied Ecology, DOI:10.1111/1365-2664.12726.
Maron, M., et al. (including Bull, J.W.) (2016) “Taming a wicked problem: resolving controversies in biodiversity offsetting“. BioScience, DOI:10.1093/biosci/biw038.
Bull, J.W., et al. (2016) “Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats: a SWOT analysis of the ecosystem services framework”. Ecosystem Services, 17: 99–111
Svenning, J.-C., et al. (incl. Sandom, C.J.) (2015) “Science for a wilder Anthropocene: Synthesis and future directions for trophic rewilding research”. PNAS
Lorimer, J., Sandom, C.J., et al. (2015) “Rewilding: Science, Practice, and Politics”. Annual Review of Environment and Resources, 40
Bakker, E. S., et al. (incl. Sandom, C.J.) (2015) “Combining paleo-data and modern exclosure experiments to assess the impact of megafauna extinctions on woody vegetation”. PNAS, 201502545.
Ripple, W. J., et al. (incl. Sandom, C.J.) (2015) “Collapse of the world’s largest herbivores”. Science Advances, 1:e1400103.
Svenning, J.C., et al. (incl. Sandom, C.J.) (2015) “Science for a wilder Anthropocene: Synthesis and future directions for trophic rewilding research”. PNAS [http://www.pnas.org/content/early/2015/10/23/1502556112.full.pdf].
Bull, J.W., Brownlie, S. (2015) “The transition from No Net Loss to a Net Gain of biodiversity is far from trivial”. Oryx, DOI:10.1017/S0030605315000861.
Bull, J.W., Hardy, M.J., Moilanen, A., Gordon, A. (2015) “Categories of flexibility in biodiversity offsetting, and the implications of out-of-kind ecological compensation”. Biological Conservation. DOI:10.1016/j.biocon.2015.08.003.
Bull, J.W., Singh N.J., Suttle K.B., Bykova E.A., Milner-Gulland E.J. (2015) “Creating a frame of reference for conservation interventions”. Land Use Policy, 49: 273–286. DOI:10.1016/j.landusepol.2015.08.005.
Maron, M., Bull, J.W., Evans, M.C., Gordon, A. (2015) “Locking in loss: Baselines of decline in Australian biodiversity offset policies”. Biological Conservation, DOI:10.1016/j.biocon.2015.05.017.
Bull, J.W., Bryant, C., Baker, J. and Milner-Gulland, E.J. (2015) “Developing, measuring and communicating the outcomes of corporate biodiversity strategies”. Wild Business Ltd; London, UK [accessible here].
Gordon, A., Bull, J.W., Wilcox, C., Maron, M. (2015) “Perverse incentives risk undermining biodiversity offset policies”. Journal of Applied Ecology, DOI: 10.1111/1365-2664.12398.
Sandom, C., Faurby, S., Sandel, B., and Svenning, J-C. (2014) “Global late Quaternary megafauna extinctions linked to humans, not climate change”. Proceedings of the Royal Society B, DOI: 10.1098/rspb.2013.3254.
Bull J.W., Milner-Gulland E.J., Suttle K.B., and Singh N.J. (2014) “Applying different biodiversity offset calculation methodologies to a case study in Uzbekistan”. Biological Conservation, DOI: 10.1016/j.biocon.2014.07.006
Bull J.W., Gordon A., Law E.A., Suttle K.B., and Milner-Gulland E.J. (2014) “Importance of baseline specification in evaluating conservation interventions and achieving ‘no net loss’ of biodiversity”. Conservation Biology, DOI: 10.1111/cobi.12243
Jones, I.L.*, Bull, J.W.*, Milner-Gulland, E.J., Esipov, A.V., and Suttle, K.B. (2014) Quantifying habitat impacts of natural gas infrastructure to facilitate biodiversity offsetting. Ecology and Evolution
Sandom, C., L. Dalby, C. Fløjgaard, W. D. Kissling, J. Lenoir, B. Sandel, K. Trøjelsgaard, R. Ejrnæs, and J.-C. Svenning. (2013). Mammal predator and prey species richness are strongly linked at macroscales. Ecology 94:1112-1122. http://dx.doi.org/10.1890/12-1342.1
Sandom, C., C. J. Donlan, J. C. Svenning, and D. M. Hansen. (2013). Rewilding.in D. W. Macdonald and K. J. Willis, editors. Key topics in conservation biology 2. Blackwell Publishing.
Sandom, C., J. Hughes, and D. W. Macdonald. (2013). Rooting for Rewilding: Quantifying Wild Boar’s Sus scrofa Rooting Rate in the Scottish Highlands. Restoration Ecology 21:329-335. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1526-100X.2012.00904.x
Sandom, C., J. Hughes, and D. W. Macdonald. (2013). Rewilding the Scottish Highlands: Do Wild Boar, Sus scrofa, Use a Suitable Foraging Strategy to be Effective Ecosystem Engineers? Restoration Ecology 21:336-343. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1526-100X.2012.00903.x
Bull, J.W., Suttle, K.B., Gordon, A., Singh, N.J., Milner-Gulland, E.J. (2013) “Biodiversity offsets in theory and practice”. Oryx, 47(3):369-380
Bull, J.W., Suttle, K.B., Singh, N.J., Milner-Gulland, E.J. (2013) “Conservation when nothing stands still: moving targets and biodiversity offsets”. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, 11(4): 203-210.
Sandom, C., Bull, J.W., Canney, S., Macdonald, D.W. (2012) “Exploring the Value of Wolves (Canis lupus) in Landscape-Scale Fenced Reserves for Ecological Restoration in the Scottish Highlands”. In: M. Hayward & M. Somers (eds) Fencing for Conservation. Springer
No net loss and rewilding databases
We are currently involved in a number of collaborative research programmes into rewilding, and into ‘no net loss’ and ‘net gain’ as policy principles. These include working with researchers at the University of Oxford (UK), University of Copenhagen (Denmark), and University of Sussex (UK) – and informally, with other institutions.
One component of this has been to build a Wild Business database of regional, national and international policies and guidelines that enable or require the implementation of no net loss projects, particularly biodiversity offsets. For more information about this database, which is derived primarily from available academic literature (see list below), please refer to the Contacts page on this website. This database has now been subsumed by the Global Inventory of Biodiversity Offset Policies (GIBOP). This includes the database into biodiversity offset implementation created and published by Bull & Strange (2018).
Further, Wild Business have constructed a global database of medium to large companies that have some kind of commitment to the conservation or restoration of nature as part of their sustainability programmes. Again, for more information, please refer to the Contacts page on this website.
References [for constructing database of existing biodiversity offset policies and programmes]
Bull, J.W., et al. (2013) Conservation when nothing stands still: biodiversity offsets and moving targets. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, 11(4): 203-210.
Doswald, N., et al. (2012) Biodiversity Offsets: Voluntary and Compliance Regimes. A Review of Existing Schemes, Initiatives and Guidance for Financial Institutions. UNEP-WCMC, Cambridge, UK. UNEP FI, Geneva, Switzerland.
ICMM & IUCN. (2012) Independent Report on Biodiversity Offsets. Prepared by The Biodiversity Consultancy.
Madsen, B., et al. (2010) State of Biodiversity Markets Report: Offset and Compensation Programs Worldwide. Forest Trends; Washington, DC, USA.
Madsen, B., et al. (2011) 2011 Update: State of Biodiversity Markets. Forest Trends; Washington, DC, USA.
Morandeau, D. & Vilaysack, D. (2012) Compensating for Damage to Biodiversity: An International Benchmarking Study. General Commission for Sustainable Development.
Tanaka, A. (2010) Novel biodiversity offset strategies: Satoyama banking and earth banking. “IAIA10 Conference Proceedings” The Role of Impact Assessment in Transitioning to the Green Economy 30th Annual Meeting of the International Association for Impact Assessment 6-11 April 2010, International Conference Centre Geneva – Switzerland.
ten Kate & Crowe (2014) Biodiversity Offsets: Policy options for governments. IUCN Technical Paper. IUCN; Gland, Switzerland.
The Biodiversity Consultancy. (2013) Government Policies on Biodiversity Offsets. The Biodiversity Consultancy; Cambridge, UK.
Villarroya, A. et al. (2014) Policy Development for Environmental Licensing and Biodiversity Offsets in Latin America. PLoS 1. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0107144.